September 19, 2009

Smangus

司馬庫斯位於新竹尖石鄉的遙遠山區裡,原本是個遺世獨立的泰雅部落,因神木的發現而聲名大噪,觀光人潮紛至沓來。族人為了私利相互競爭,而讓部落嚴重分裂。為了能讓部落永續經營,族人們放棄個人利益、分工合作,共同經營民宿、果園及餐廳,是目前台灣唯一採行「共同經營」的部落。

Smangus is located in the remote mountain of Jianshi township in Hsinchu. Smangus consists of Atayal aborigines and was completely isolated from the outside world. Since the giant ancient tree was discovered, the tourists started to arrive. The tribe was almost split due to the interest conflict among the residents after the tourists came in. In order to keep the tribe to stay intact, residents started to realize that they needed to build teamwork, cooperate, and develop lodgings, orchards, and restaurants together. Smangus has developed a “Cooperative Management” system which is also the first “kibbutz” in Taiwan.

一走進司馬庫斯,等於走進了原民藝術展場。樸拙自然、不帶矯飾的木雕隨處可見,大到巨型雕刻、部落地圖,小到路標、指示牌等等,所有眼前可見的一切,幾乎都是族人一筆一刀刻劃而成的。用原木、竹子搭建的房舍順著坡勢鋪展,住家小徑入口掛著的並不是小小的制式門牌,而是各具特色的原木雕刻。不用數字辨別,直接刻上「某某人的家」,這樣的門牌有種特殊的親切感,讀著讀著,似乎和屋內的主人有了一點聯繫。

As soon as you walk into Smangus, you would feel like walking into a tribal art fair. All natural art wood sculptures were made by the aborigines in the village, from the large size, such as the giant carving, tribal map, to the smaller size of road and direction signs…etc. Homes were made by the woods or bamboos on the slope hills. Each home does not have the pattern door sign, but with a special art sculpture. They don’t use numbers on the door sign either, but use “Whose home” instead which seems to make a closer connection between the visitors and home owners.

若仔細觀察門牌,會發現上面還刻著不同的圖騰。織紋,代表這家主人擁有織布的好手藝;獵刀,表示捕獵技術獲得族人的肯定;小米或玉米,說明這家子裡的戶長一定有著超高的農業技術。當然最常見的是刻上「發光的房子」,代表著這戶人家還在持續學習中。這些圖騰都是獲得族人們的認同,並非個人想刻就刻,它代表身份的識別,是一種能力的肯定。

If you look at the door signs closely, you will find that there are different totems on it. If you see the weave mark totem, it means that the home owners have the specialty in the fabrics weaving. If you see the hunting knife totem, it means the home owners have the hunting skill approved by the tribe. If you see the millet or corn totem, it means the owner of the home has the leading farming skill. The most common totem sign is the “Shining Home” which means that they are still learning. Each totem design must be approved by the entire tribe residents. They represent the status of the residents, and are also recognitions of their skills.

在一九七九年通電後,司馬庫斯正式脫離黑暗,但文明的到來並未讓族人遺忘與自然環境共生的本質。部落裡所有的路燈都是善用自然資源,利用腐朽的二葉松木作成燈罩,讓文明以不露痕跡的方式隱藏其中,不僅環保又具創意,讓路燈也成為一種藝術品。在這裡隨意漫步,轉角就能遇見驚喜,對司馬庫斯的族人來說,藝術不是理論,而是體現在日常生活裡,要與自己朝夕相處的。

Smangus had electricity in 1979 and is no longer in the dark. Modern civilization did not let the residents forget protecting their natural environment. The residents utilized natural materials such as rotten pine tree to make street lamp covers, allowing the modern to be blended in the nature. These lamp covers not only have creative and artistic designs, but also are eco-friendly. Wandering in town, you would see surprises in each street corner. Art to Smangus residents is not a theory, but is a daily life reflection.

很久以前一個叫馬庫斯(Mangus)的英雄,帶領族人從台灣中南部的山區遷徙來此定居,後世子孫為了紀念他,遂以他的名字做為部落名稱,並在名字前面加上S代表尊敬,這就是「司馬庫斯」命名的由來。

A long time ago, a hero named Mangus brought the tribe to this mountain to settle from the southern part of Taiwan. In the memory of Mangus, the place was named after him with “S” in front of his name to show the respect. Here is “Smangus” originally from.

部落廣場上,豎立著一座叫「生命之樹」的三面圓型木雕。木雕的其中一面刻著一名男子,左手置於腰上,右手扛著臼,腳邊還有獵犬在側,這名男子就是英雄馬庫斯。捕獵文化是早期部落主要生存的方式之一,但對於誰能拿著獵槍進入森林,及打獵的季節與數量都有著一定規範。夠用即可,不貪心掠奪,嚴守自然保育觀念,這樣大自然的資源才能源源不絕。

A round shape of wood sculpture is located in the public square, named " Tree of Life". Mangus was sculptured with his left hand placed on the waist and carrying a mortar on his right shoulder. A hunting dog sits next to him. Hunting was the way of living. However, who and when were allowed to hunt must follow the rules. People could only hunt for what they needed. They had strict environmental sense in order to protect the natural resources.

在部落走動,經常可以見到小黑狗的蹤影。二十八戶人家,一百六十五位族人,而小黑狗就有四十多隻,算算每三~四個人就擁有一隻狗,養狗的比例相當的高。這也難怪,自古狗就是獵人的好夥伴,森林有什麼動靜狗兒都會第一個發現,幫助獵人提高警覺,也讓他們在勞累的時候能夠安心休息片刻。

You often see the black dog on the streets. There are only 28 homes with 165 residents; however, there are at least 41 black dogs. That means every 3-4 residents have a dog which shows a pretty high ratio. As we know, dogs have been always human’s good partners. Dogs can protect hunters in the wild and watch over for them when they are resting.

司馬庫斯是無菸社區,為維護部落生態環境,任何人都不能在部落裡隨意生火、野炊。

Smangus is a smoking prohibited community to maintain its environment safe from fire and cooking activities.

部落內處處花木扶疏、綠蔭遮天,漫步其中舒適宜人。即便在炎炎夏日,只要在綠蔭下即能感受陣陣涼風。

Smangus is filled of forest green and flowers and has a pleasant climate. Even in the hot summer time, you would enjoy the coolness under the shades.

部落內有多座涼亭,涼爽宜人,很適合發呆、打盹。

There are lots of pavilions in the community. They are good for people taking a nap or enjoying a piece of quiet moment.

這間號稱為司馬庫斯7-11的「補給站」,販售冷飲、零食餅乾及當地人自製的手工藝品。二樓的「雅竹餐廳」是部落裡唯一的餐廳。

This is Smangus’s “7-11" Store which sells drinks, snack, and local handmade art and craft. “Yachu Restaurant” is located on the second floor of this building and is also the only restaurant in the community.

雅竹餐廳提供原民風味餐,其中烤魚與烤山豬肉是這裡的招牌菜。下午四點多,可以看到部落人忙著升火,準備著遊客晚餐。

“Yachu Restaurant” provides tribal cuisine. Smoked fish and BBQed pork are their special dishes. Around 4:00 pm, suppers are prepared for the visitors.

雖然現在已經禁止捕獵,但在部落隨意走逛,仍可嗅得以前的打獵文化。 註:地上是以前捕獵用的陷阱

Although hunting is prohibited now, wandering on the streets you could still experience the hunting culture by spotting hunting traps from the old time.

「我們不管遷移到哪裡,都要彼此相愛互助、要勤勞工作。」,這是祖先的叮嚀,聽起來很容易,實行起來卻相當不易。也因如此司馬庫斯族人在觀光人潮湧進後,大家為了私利相互競爭、猜忌,不斷爭吵的結果讓部落嚴重分裂,原本「互助共享」的價值與精神瞬間被摧毀。在反省與摸索中,部落長老想起了「祖先的叮嚀」,這古老傳統的智慧,是部落能不能永續生存的重要關鍵。於是,「共同經營」的理念,在長老們不斷溝通、遊說的努力下建立起來,也成功杜絕財團入侵,保衛部落土地財產,也讓部落再次團結起來。

“No matter where we live, we all must support each other and work diligently” this is a reminder from ancestors. It sounds very easy, but is tough to achieve. The booming of tourism almost caused Smangus to split due to the conflict of interest. The spirit of “team support” taught by the ancestors was almost destroyed. After some soul searching, leaders in the tribe realized that the old wisdom was the key to success. The “Cooperative Management” system was then built to keep the community united and properties protected from outsiders.

目前,部落的統一對外窗口為「司馬庫斯旅客服務中心」,除了提供諮詢、訂房、訂餐等服務外,服務中心每周六下午會有免費導覽,晚間還會有部落長老,分享部落歷史與典故。

The “Smangus Tourist Information Center” provides lodging and meal services information. The center also provides free guided tours on every Saturday afternoon. The elderly residents would also share Smangus’s history with visitors in the evening.

Read More

4 comments:

dennis said...

very detailed and educational, wish i could visit one day as well. thank you.

kristen and Micki said...

Thanks Dennis! If you do come to visit some day , please let us know! :)

Guillermo Robles Oceguera said...

Que impresionado me han dejado, la comida se ve deliciosa, y la forma en que se preparan los alimentos se ve que saben muy buenos, por favor no dejen de publicar ya que su página enriquece el espiritu.
Los invito a mi web cultural.
http://colimarte.blogspot.com
Saldos desde Colima, México.

micki and kristen said...

Hi, Guillermo, Thanks for your compliment! Glad to know that you also like the way they prepared the food. Thanks for sharing your cultural blog!
Muchas Gracias!

Post a Comment

Related Posts with Thumbnails